The Catholic Church has 7 Sacraments:
Baptism, Confession (Reconciliation or Penance), Holy Communion (Eucharist), Confirmation (Chrismation), Marriage (Matrimony), Holy Orders, and Anointing of the Sick.
“The seven sacraments touch all the stages and all the important moments of Christian life: they give birth and increase, healing and mission to the Christian’s life of faith. There is thus a certain resemblance between the stages of natural life and the stages of the spiritual life.“ – CCC 1210
The Church teaches that these sacraments were all instituted by Christ and given to the Church to administer. They are necessary for salvation. The sacraments are the vehicles of grace which they convey.
A sacrament is “an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace given unto us, ordained by Christ himself, as a means whereby we receive the same, and a pledge to assure us thereof.” – St. Augustine
“The purpose of the sacraments is to sanctify men, to build up the Body of Christ and, finally, to give worship to God. Because they are signs they also instruct. They not only presuppose faith, but by words and objects they also nourish, strengthen, and express it. That is why they are called sacraments of faith” – CCC 1123